DOI: https://doi.org/10.31318/2522-4190.2020.129.219735

Charles-Simon Catel’s “Traité D’harmonie” as an Origin of Conservatory Harmony Teaching Traditions

Oleksiy Vоуtenko

Abstract


Relevance of study. Applying to the doctrine of Charles-Simon Catel in modern conditions enables us to actualize the purpose of teaching musical theoretical disciplines in general and harmony in particular.

Main objective of the study. To reveal some aspects of Charles-Simon Catel’s methodic of harmony teaching.

Methodology. The research has included studying of main text sources (first of all — by Ch. Catel and B. Asaf'ev) and general summing up of the special problematics.

Results/findings and conclusions.

  1. “Traité d'harmonie” by Ch. Catel is an important artifact of music theory of the 19th century, a “cornerstone” of the conservatory tradition of harmony teaching.
  2. According to B. Asaf'ev, some elements of the Catel’s doctrine are reflected in the works of the most significant European composers of the 19 th–early 20th centuries.
  3. The most significant component of Catel’s didactic is the division of all harmonic facts into two species: simple harmony and complex harmony. Simple harmony concretizes a logic of chord verticals organization with minimum of limitations of connections between chords. Complex harmony concretizes principles of diversified contrapuntal development of simple harmony elements. Mutual diffusion of both components concretizes a concept of harmonic material and compositional technique of its development.

“A Treatise on Harmony” by Charles-Simon Catel has a special importance for the history of European music theory. There are strong reasons to consider this work as an origin of a vast amount of modern schoolbooks on harmony.

The Conservatory of Paris was founded at the turn of 18th–19th centuries, and the roots of modern educational traditions rise from there. The main feature of the traditional school is a collective teaching of music theory courses divided as separate subjects. It’s reasonable that innovative methods of educational process have also demanded a reform of basic genres of music theory literature.

The birth of a new brand of Paris music pedagogics should be dated May 1801 when a special conservatory Committee sat in few sessions. The item of the Committee’s agenda involved the unification of actual harmony teaching methods. Upon the completion of the Committee’s activity the pedagogic method by Charles Catel was officially adopted as an element of the Conservatory’s educational plan.

Catel’s “A Treatise on Harmony” was written next after and published in 1802. It has become a main theoretical textbook of harmony to be applied in the Conservatory of Paris. That’s why Catel’s “Treatise” must be considered as a first conservatory harmony textbook ever and also a cornerstone of modern didactics.

The most important component of Catel’s didactics lies in dividing all the harmonical facts in two major species: Simple harmony + Complex harmony.

According to Catel, the basic practical skill to be worked out by the student — an ability to extend simple chord progressions by melodic means of Complex harmony, in other words — to possess two various and mutually related kinds of voice leading: harmonic and melodic ones.

In general, Catel’s “Treatise” should be considered as a conservatory prolegomenon in actual music composition of the 19 century beginning, for it lights the basic elements of the music practice (harmony, counterpoint, figured bass) summarized as a synthetic unity.


Keywords


activity of Charles-Simon Catel; Conservatory of Paris; harmony; counterpoint

References


Asafjev, B. (1978). M. I. Glinka [M. I. Glinka]. Leningrad: Music [Muzyka], 312 p. [in Russian].

Berkov, V. (1977). Harmony [Garmoniya]. In: Berkov V. Selected articles and researches [Izbrannye stat'i i issledovaniya]. Moscow: Sovetskii kompozitor, pp. 195–236 [in Russian].

Berlioz, H. (1967) Memoires [Memuary]. Мoscow: Music [Muzyka], 815 p. [in Russian].

Bershadskaja, T. Unconventional forms of scriptory works on harmony in conservatories [Netradicionnye formy pis’mennyh rabot po garmonii v konservatorijah]. Sankt-Petersburg: Kompozitor, 2001. 68 p. [in Russian].

Bogoyavlenskiy, S. (1967). Soviet theoretical musicology (1941–1966) [Sovetskoe teoreticheskoe muzykoznanie (1941–1966)]. In: Questions of music theory and aesthetic [Voprosy teorii i estetika muzyki]. Issue 6–7. Leningrad: Muzyka, pp. 164–194. [in Russian].

Bondarenko, T. (2018). System cooperation of horizontal and vertical in harmony [Systemna vzaiemodiia vertykali i horyzontali u harmonii]. In: Lectures on harmony theory [Lektsii z teorii harmonii]: schoolbook for higher education institutes. Zhytomyr, pp. 95–147 [in Ukrainian].

Voitenko, O. S. (2018). “Traité dharmonie” (1802) by Charles Catel and its reflection in Richard Wagner’s oeuvre [«Traité d’harmonie» (1802) Sharlya Katelya ta iogo vіdbittya v tvorchostі Rіkharda Vagnera]. In: Journal of the Tchaikovsky National Music Academy of Ukraine [Chasopys Natsionalnoi muzychnoi akademii Ukrainy imeni P. I. Chaikovskoho], 1 (38). Kyiv, pp. 86–106 [in Ukrainian].

Grischenko, S. (1974). Catel, Charles-Simon [Catel, Sharl-Simon]. In: Music encyclopedia [Muzykal’naya entsiklopediya], in 6 vol. Vol. 2. Moscow: Sovetskii kompozitor, pp. 744 [in Russian].

Kotliarevskyi, I. (1974). Introduction to the classification of theoretical systems of music [Vstup do klasyfikatsii muzychno-teoretychnykh system]. Kyiv: Muzychna Ukraina, 48 p. [in Ukrainian].

Larosh, G. (1913). Thoughts on system of harmony and its relation to music pedagogics [Mysli o sisteme garmonii i ee primenenii k muzykal'noi pedagogike]. In: Larosh, G. A. Collection of crytical articles on music [Sobranie muzykal'no-kriticheskikh statei]. In 2 vol. Vol. 1. Society “Musical library of theory in Moscow”. Moscow, pp. 246–259 [in Russian].

Mazel, L. (1982). About some aspects of B. V. Asavjev’s theory [O nekotorykh storonakh kontseptsii B. V. Asaf'eva]. In: Mazel, L. Article on music theory and anlysis [Stat'i po teorii i analizu muzyki]. Moscow: Sovetskii kompozitor, pp. 277–307 [in Russian].

Mazel, L and Ryizhkin I. (1934, 1939). Essays on history of theoretical musicology [Ocherki po istorii teoreticheskogo muzyikoznaniya], in 2 vols. Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe muzykalnoe izdatelstvo. Vol. 1. 180 p. Vol. 2. 248 p. [in Russian].

Mann, T. (1959). Doctor Faustus [Doctor Faustus]. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo inostrannoi literatury, 616 p. [in Russian].

Polotskaya, E. (2009). Tchajkovsky and genesis of composer’s education in Russia [P. I. Chaikovskii i stanovlenie kompozitorskogo obrazovaniya v Rossii]: Manuscript of Dissertation work for gaining the degree of the Doctor of Art Criticism by specialty 17.00.02 Music Art. Gnesins Russian Academy of Music. Moscow, 690 p. [in Russian].

Radige, A. (1934). French musicians of Great French revolution epoch [Frantsuzskie muzykanty epokhi Velikoi frantsuzskoi revolyutsii]. Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe muzykalnoe izdatelstvo, 145 p. [in Russian].

Stepanov, A. (1984). Methodics of harmony teaching [Metodika prepodavaniya garmonii]. Moscow: Muzyka, 131 p. [in Russian].

Tyshko, S. and Mamaev S. (2002). Glinka’s wanderings. Comments to “Notes” [Stranstviya Glinki. Kommentarii k «Zapiskam»]. In 4 vol. Vol. 2: Glinka in Germany, or apologia of romantic [Glinka v Germanii, ili Apologiya romanticheskogo soznaniya]. Kyiv: Zadruga, 508 p. [in Russian].

Harnonkurt, N. (2002). Music in our life [Muzyka v nashomu zhytti]. In: Music as a tone language [Muzyka yak mova zvukiv]. Sumy: Sobor, pp. 4–6 [in Ukrainian].

Harnonkurt, N. (2002). Understanding of music and music education [Rozuminnia muzyky ta muzychna osvita]. In: Music as a tone language [Muzika yak mova zvukiv]. Sumy: Sobor, pp. 10–19 [in Ukrainian].

Tchajkovsky, P. (1897) Treatise on practical studying of harmony [Rukovodstvo k prakticheskomu izucheniyu garmonii]. Moscow: Parovaja skoropechatnia not P. Jurgensohna, 154 p. [in Russian].

Shevalje, L. (1932). History of harmony doctrine [Istoriya uchenii o garmonii]. Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe muzykalnoe izdatelstvo, 184 p. [in Russian].

Catel, Ch. (1802). Treatise on Harmony [Traité d’harmonie]. Paris: l’Imprimerie du Conservatoire de Musique, 73 p. [in French].

Catel, Ch. (1832). A Treatise on Harmony. With additional note and explanations by L. Mason. Boston: James Loring, 156 p. [in English].

Catel, Ch. (1854). A Treatise on Harmony. London: J. Alfred Novello, 57 p. [in English].

Education in music (1995). In: The New Grove Dictonary of Musiс and Musicians. In 20 vol., Vol. 6. New York: Macmillan, pp. 1–58 [in English].

Suskin, S. (1995). Catel, Charles-Simon. In: The New Grove Dictonary of Musik and Musicians. In 20 vols., Vol. 4. New York: Macmillan, pp. 7–8 [in English].


GOST Style Citations


Асафьев Б. В. М. И. Глинка. Ленинград : Музыка, 1978. 312 с.

Берков В. О. Гармония // Берков В. О. Избранные статьи и исследования. Москва : Сов. композитор, 1977. С. 195–236.

Берлиоз Г. Мемуары. Москва : Музыка, 1967. 815 с.

Бершадская Т. С. Нетрадиционные формы письменных работ по гармонии в консерваториях. Санкт-Петербург : Композитор, 2001. 68 с.

Богоявленский С. Н. Советское теоретическое музыкознание (1941–1966) // Вопросы теории и эстетика музыки. Ленинград : Музыка, 1967. Вып. 6–7. С. 164–194.

Бондаренко Т. О. Системна взаємодія вертикалі і горизонталі у гармонії // Лекції з теорії гармонії: навчальний посібник для вищих мистецьких навчальних закладів. Житомир, 2018. С. 95–147.

Войтенко О. С. «Traité d’harmonie» (1802) Шарля Кателя та його відбиття в творчості Ріхарда Вагнера // Часопис Національної музичної академії імені П. І. Чайковського : наук. журн. Київ, 2018. № 1 (38). С. 86–106.

Грищенко С. М. Катель, Шарль-Симон // Музыкальная энциклопедия : в 6 т. / гл. ред. Ю. В. Келдыш. Т. 2 : Гондольера — Корсов. Москва : Сов. композитор, 1974. С. 744.

Котляревський І. А. Вступ до класифікації музично-теоретичних систем. Київ : Муз. Україна, 1974. 48 с.

Ларош Г. А. Мысли о системе гармонии и её применении к музыкальной педагогике // Ларош Г. А. Собрание музыкально-критических статей / авт. вступ. ст. М. И. Чайковский, воспоминания Н. Д. Кашкина : в 2 т. Т. 1. Москва : Об-во «Муз-теорет. б-ка в Москве», 1913. С. 246–259.

Мазель Л. А. О некоторых сторонах концепции Б. В. Асафьева // Мазель Л. А. Статьи по теории и анализу музыки. Москва : Сов. композитор, 1982. С. 277–307.

Мазель Л. А., Рыжкин И. Я. Очерки по истории теоретического музыкознания : в 2 вып. Москва : Гос. муз. изд-во. Вып. 1. 1934. 180 с.; Вып. 2. 1939. 248 с.

Манн Т. Доктор Фаустус. Москва : Иноиздат, 1959. 616 с.

Полоцкая Е. Е. П. И. Чайковский и становление композиторского образования в России : дис. … доктора искусствоведения : спец. 17.00.02 Музыкальное искусство / Рос. муз. акад. им. Гнесиных. Москва, 2009. 690 с.

Радиге А. Французские музыканты эпохи Великой французской революции / пер. с фр. Г. М. Ванькович и Н. И. Игнатовой ; под ред. М. В. Иванова-Борецкого. Москва : Гос. муз. изд-во, 1934. 145 с.

Степанов А. А. Методика преподавания гармонии. Москва : Музыка, 1984. 131 с.

Тышко С. В., Мамаев С. Г. Странствия Глинки. Комментарий к «Запискам». Ч. 2 : Глинка в Германии, или Апология романтического сознания. Киев : Задруга, 2002. 508 с.

Харнонкурт Н. Музика в нашому житті // Харнонкурт Н. Музика як мова звуків / пер. Г. Курков. Суми : Собор, 2002. С. 4–6.

Харнонкурт Н. Розуміння музики та музична освіта // Харнонкурт Н. Музика як мова звуків / пер. Г. Курков. Суми : Собор, 2002. С. 10–19.

Чайковский П. И. Руководство к практическому изучению гармонии : учебник. Изд. 6-е. Москва : Паровая скоропечатня нот П. Юргенсона, 1897. 154 с.

Шевалье Л. История учений о гармонии / пер. с фр. З. Потаповой и В. Таранущенко ; под ред. М. В. Иванова-Борецкого. Москва : Гос. муз. изд-во, 1932. 184 с.

Catel Ch.-S. Traité d’harmonie. Paris : l’Imprimerie du Conservatoire de Musique, 1802. 73 p.

Catel Ch.-S. A Treatise on Harmony / with additional note and explanations by Lowell Mason. Boston : James Loring, 1832. 156 p.

Catel Ch.-S. A Treatise on Harmony / translated by Mrs Cowden Clarke. London, 1854. 57 p.

Education in music // The New Grove Dictonary of Musiс and Musicians. New York, 1995. Vol. 6. P. 1–58.

Suskin S. Catel, Charles-Simon // The New Grove Dictonary of Musik and Musicians. New York, 1995. Vol. 4. P. 7–8.





ISSN 2522-4190 (print)
ISSN 2522-4204 (online)