Musicological Methodology. Problem Statement and Basic Concepts
Keywords:musicology, method, methodics, technique, approach, methodology
Relevance of research. The urgency to study the methodological foundations of musicology is due to the crisis in which this area of humanities in Ukraine has been for a long time. Insufficient development of the methodological knowledge in home-grown musicology is noted. The purpose of the study is to outline the problem of methods and methodologies of musicology, to clarify the meaning of basic terms and to offer some principles for further discussion.
Methods. The research is based on the philosophy approach and general methods of theoretic investigation, such as: comparative analysis of different terms definitions, clarification of the semantic borders between the main concepts, schematic models construction etc. The study was carried out as a consecutive and mutually coordinated definition of the main music methodology concepts: from the method and technique up to the approaches and levels of methodology.
The results and conclusions. The definition of the term method in its broadest scientific meaning is accepted. The conditionality of the boundary separating natural, methodical and methodologically ordered actions is indicated.
The general properties and criteria of the methods estimation (functionality, system, structure) are characterized. The interpretation of the concepts of technique and approach, which takes into account the multiplicity of their usage values, is proposed. The main meanings of the term methodics are considered. Preference is given to understanding of the term methodics as a systemic integrity, covering the methods and techniques of the particular activity. The meaning of the term methodology is specified. There are two types of methodology: a) implicit — one that exists internally and imperceptibly in any method of activity as an element of its reflection; b) explicit — one that manifests itself outwardly in the form of logically consistent, mutually agreed judgments. The main methods of cognition (or gnostic) approaches are considered. They are: empirical, scientific, artistic and mystical. The points of view, proposed by W. Dilthey and neo-Kantian philosophers, who distinguish between natural sciences, which are dominated by the nomothetic method of cognition, and the science of the spirit, where the ideographic method prevails, are taken into account. It is established that the methodology of musicology: a) arises spontaneously as a moment of reflection in the processes of musical creativity (compositional, improvisational, performing, pedagogical); b) reflects the methods of different levels, and therefore it has a multilevel structure; c) may be based on various gnostic approaches, although in practice the scientific approach to the study of methods of music and musicology prevails.
Results and conclusions. Significance of these results consists in providing more accurate and adjusted definite methods for further mastering in various musicology subjects — theory, history, ethnic musicology, culturology etc. The obtained results can find practical application in reviewing, editing, musicology publications criticism.
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