DOI: https://doi.org/10.31318/2522-4190.2020.128.215195

The Orchestra of Schumann and its Modifications in the Cello Concerto op. 129

Vadym Rakochi

Abstract


Subject of the study and relevance. Musicologists rarely pay attention to Schumann’s Cello Concerto op. 129. Only a few recently published studies of the Concerto reveal the history of its creation, sources of motives, and structural peculiarities. However, there is no analysis of the orchestra and the orchestration specific features of the Concerto until nowadays.

Aims of the paper. To clarify the features of the orchestra of Schumann and to consider the particularities of its use in the Cello Concerto.

Methodology. The review of the literature allows us to focus on aspects that need further examination. The historical approach reveals the context of the writing of the Cello Concerto. The comparative method makes it possible to compare Schumann’s Piano and Cello Concertos. Score analysis discloses special techniques and particular features of orchestration in order to embody musical images in the orchestra.

Discussion. The attitude to Schumann’s orchestration as a colorless and a heavy one because of permanent exact duplications has been widely spread among the researchers. This cliché does not take into account that Schumann’s reliance on timbre mixed colours (thanks to exact duplications) is often combined with careful detailing. The delicate variation of some lines in the orchestra looks even more paradoxical because the eye frequently notices them while the ear does not. The genre of the concerto sets specific challenges for the composer that results in the “experimental” orchestration of the piano Concerto (op. 54) with its “in-the-orchestra soloists”, number of alternations, and re-orchestration of music material as an important method of the development. Obviously, it was Schumann’s “favorite” piano choice as the soloist that has promoted this new approach to orchestration in his Piano Concerto. Its orchestration should be treated as unprecedented in Schumann’s musical career.

The comparison of the Cello and Piano Concertos demonstrates Schumann’s continuity in particular approaches to the figurative volume, structural modifications, and different ways to present musical material in the orchestra. Both Concertos have the in-the-orchestra soloists: the oboe, the clarinet, and the woodwind section in the first work and the woodwinds section and the French horn in the second one. The inclusion of this soloistic group on the edge of the form’s sections, at the climax, and in the conjunctions among the movements specify its form-defying, semantic, and dramaturgical functions in the Cello Concerto. The refuse of double exposition and the allocation of soloistic groups enhance a new level of interaction between the instruments in the orchestra, between the cello solo and the orchestra as well as reflect a lyrical psychological Schumann’s concept of the instrumental concerto. Thus, orchestration of the Concerto undoubtedly reflects the individual (the author’s) world outlook.

Conclusions. Numerous changes in the density of the orchestral textures, the appearance of the soloistic instrumental group, and the different functions of tutti demonstrate deep changes in the composer’s approach to the orchestra. These features clearly reflect a new role of the orchestra in the instrumental concerto. Therefore, certain clichés towards Schumann’s ability to orchestrate need to be reconsidered undoubtedly. Now it is high time for this.


Keywords


Robert Schumann symphonic works; orchestration; Cello Concerto op. 129; Piano Concerto op. 54; timbral dramaturgy; tutti; solo

References


Gurevich, L. (1997). The history of orchestral styles: textbook manual for music universities [Istoriya orkestrovykh stile : uchebnoye posobiye dlya muz. vuzov]. Moscow: Kompositor, 208 p. [in Russian].

Zhytomyrskiy, D. (1964). Robert Schuman. Essay on life and creativity [Robert Shuman. Ocherk zhizni i tvorchestva]. Moskow: Muzyka, 880 p. [in Russian].

Madorsky, S. (1976). “Peculiarities of Schumann’s Cello Concerto score in Shostakovich’s instrumentation” [Osobennosti partitury Kontserta dlya violoncheli R. Shumana v instrumentovke D. Shostakovicha]. Problems of Theory and History of Music: Collection of articles [Problemy teorii i istorii muzyki]. A. V. Lunacharsky Belarusian State Conservatory. Minsk, pp. 141–156 [in Russian].

Schumann, R. (1978). Franz Liszt [Franz List]. Schumann, R. On music and musicians [O muzyke i muzykantakh], a collection of articles, in 2 vols. Vol. II-A, edited by D. V. Zhitomirsky. Moscow: Muzyka, pр. 224–230 [in Russian].

Schumann, R. (1978). Henri Herz Third Concerto (d-moll). Op. 87 [G. Gerc. Tretij koncert (d-moll). Soch. 87]. Schumann, R. On music and musicians [O muzyke i muzykantakh], a collection of articles, in 2 vols. Vol. II-A, edited by D. V. Zhitomirsky. Moscow: Muzyka, pp. 13–14 [in Russian].

Zhu Y. (2011). The peculiarities of the concerto genre embodiment in Schumann’s works [Spetsyfyka voploshchenyya kontsertnoho zhanra v tvorchestve R. Shumana]. Problems of the Interaction of art, pedagogy and theory and practice of education. Cognitive Musicology-2 [Problemy vzayemodiyi mystetstva, pedahohiky ta teoriyi i praktyky osvity. Kohnityvne muzykoznavstvo2]: collection of the research works. Kharkiv National Kotlyarevsky University of Arts. Issue 32. Kharkiv, pp. 255–268 [in Russian].

Chissell, J. (1962). Schumann. New York: Collier Books, 282 p. [in English].

Ferguson, D. N. (1954). Masterworks of the orchestral repertoire; a guide for listeners. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 662 p. [in English].

Finson, J. (1989). Robert Schumann and the study of orchestral composition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 152 р. [in English].

Franke, V. M. (2006). “Mahler’s Reorchestration of Schumann’s “Spring” Symphony, Op. 38: Background, Analysis, Intentions”. Acta Musicologica. Vol. 78. No. 1, рр. 75–109 [in English].

Gal, H. (1979). Schumann orchestral music. London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 64 р. [in English].

Girard, A. (2009). The orchestration from Haydn to Stravinsky [L’Orchestration de Haydn à Stravinsky]. Paris: Billaudot, 200 р. [in French].

Goubault, C. (2017). History of orchestration and instrumentation [Histoire de l’instrumentation et de l’orchestration]. Paris: Minerve, 479 р. [in French].

Ka-Wai, Y. (2011). When concerto meets song cycle: a study of vocal influences in Robert Schumann’s Cello Concerto in A minor, op. 129, with reference to his Dichterliebe, op. 48. Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Musical Arts in Cello Performance and Literature in the Graduate College of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 231 p. [in English].

Kerman, J (1999). Concerto conversations. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 175 p. [in English].

Kerman, J. (2007). The Concertos. The Cambridge Companion to Schumann. Ed. by Beate Perrey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 173–194. [in English].

Leibowitz, R. (1971). Leibowitz, R. The composer and his double : essays on musical interpretation [Le Compositeur et son double : essais sur l’interprétation musicale]. Paris : Gallimard, 574 р. [in French].

Louvier, A., Castanet P. A. (1997). The orchestra. [L’orchestre]. Paris: Combre, 135 p. [in French].

Mayeda, A. (2007). Robert Schumann’s sketches for the Cello Concerto op. 129 [Robert Schumanns Skizzen zum Cellokonzert op. 129]. Schumann Research [Schumann Forschungen]. Vol. 12: Robert Schumann, the cello and the cellists of his time [Robert Schumann, das Violoncello und die Cellisten seiner Zeit]. Ed. B. R. Appel and M. Wendt. Mainz : Schott, pp. 59–79 [in German].

Meier, B. (2004). Robert Schumann. London: Haus, 185 p. [in English].

Miranda, C. (2016). “Decoding the Schumann Cello Concerto”. The Musical Times. Vol. 157. No. 1934, pp. 45–66 [in English].

Roeder, M. T. A. (1994). History of the Concerto. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press, 480 p. [in English].

Rosen C. (2012). Robert Schumann, a vision of the future. Freedom and the arts: essays on music and literature. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, рр. 193–200.

Steinberg, M. (1998). The concerto: a listener’s guide. New York: Oxford University Press, 506 p. [in English].

Tibbets, J. (2010). Schuman: A Chorus of Voices. Amadeus Press, 514 р. [in English].

Tunbridge L. (2007). Schumann’s Late Style. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 246 p. [in English].


GOST Style Citations


Гуревич Л. И. История оркестровых стилей : учеб. пособие для муз. вузов. Москва : Композитор, 1997. 208 с.

Житомирский Д. В. Роберт Шуман. Очерк жизни и творчества. Москва : Музыка, 1964. 880 с.

Мадорский С. И. Особенности партитуры Концерта для виолончели Р. Шумана в инструментовке Д. Шостаковича // Вопросы теории и истории музыки / Белорусская гос. консерватория им. А. В. Луначарского : сб. ст. Минск, 1976. С. 141–156.

Шуман Р. Франц Лист // Шуман Р. О музыке и музыкантах : в 2 т. Т. ІІ-А / ред. Д. В. Житомирского. Москва : Музыка, 1978. С. 224–230.

Шуман Р. Г. Герц. Третий концерт (d-moll). Соч. 87 // Шуман Р. О музыке и музыкантах : в 2 т. Т. ІІ-А / ред. Д. В. Житомирского. Москва : Музыка, 1978. С. 13–14.

Чжу Ю. Специфика воплощения концертного жанра в творчестве Р. Шумана // Проблеми взаємодії мистецтва, педагогіки та теорії і практики освіти. Когнітивне музикознавство-2 : зб. наук. пр. / Харківський держ. ун-т мистецтв ім. І. П. Котляревського. Харків, 2011. Вип. 32. С. 255–268.

Chissell J. Schumann. New York : Collier Books, 1962. 282 p. 8. Ferguson D. N. Masterworks of the orchestral repertoire; a guide for listeners. Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, 1954. 662 p.

Finson J. Robert Schumann and the study of orchestral composition. Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1989. 152 р.

Franke V. M. Mahler’s Reorchestration of Schumann’s “Spring” Symphony, Op. 38: Background, Analysis, Intentions // Acta Musicologica, 2006. Vol. 78. No. 1. P. 75–109.

Gal H. Schumann orchestral music. London : British Broadcasting Corporation, 1979. 64 р.

Girard A. L’Orchestration de Haydn à Stravinsky. Paris : Billaudot, 2009. 200 р.

Goubault C. Histoire de l’instrumentation et de l’orchestration. Paris : Minerve, 2017. 479 р.

Ka-Wai Y. When concerto meets song cycle: a study of vocal influences in Robert Schumann’s Cello Concerto in A minor, op. 129, with reference to his Dichterliebe, op. 48 : Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Musical Arts in Cello Performance and Literature in the Graduate College of the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, 2011. 231 p.

Kerman J. Concerto conversations. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1999. 175 p.

Kerman J. The Concertos // The Cambridge Companion to Schumann / ed. by B. Perrey. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2007. P. 173–194.

Leibowitz R. Le Compositeur et son double : essays on musical interpretation. Paris : Gallimard, 1971. 574 р.

Louvier A., Castanet P. A. L’orchestre. Paris : Combre, 1997. 135 p.

Mayeda A. Robert Schumanns Skizzen zum Cellokonzert op. 129 // Schumann Forschungen. Band 12 : Robert Schumann, das Violoncello und die Cellisten seiner Zeit / ed. B. R. Appel and M. Wendt. Mainz : Schott, 2007. P. 59–79.

Meier B. Robert Schumann. London : Haus, 2004. 185 p.

Miranda C. Decoding the Schumann Cello Concerto // The Musical Times. 2016. Vol. 157. No. 1934. P. 45–66.

Roeder M. T. A History of the Concerto. Portland, Oregon : Amadeus Press, 1994. 480 p.

Rosen C. Robert Schumann, a vision of the future // Freedom and the arts : essays on music and literature. Cambridge : Harvard University Press, 2012. Р. 193–200.

Steinberg M. The concerto : a listener’s guide. New York : Oxford University Press, 1998. 506 p.

Tibbets J. Schuman: A Chorus of Voices. Amadeus Press, 2010. 514 р.

Tunbridge L. Schumann’s Late Style. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2007. 246 p.





ISSN 2522-4190 (print)
ISSN 2522-4204 (online)